The law related to employment in India uses a very bureaucratic system, meaning that the focus is mainly on the procedures than the effectiveness of work. In 2020, there were approximately 501 million workers in India out. There are two types of businesses: the organised and the unorganised.
The organised sector consists of registered businesses such as trade companies, factories, shopping malls, and hotels that have been formally registered. Labour in India is divided into three main sectors/industries: the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors.
94% of the working population works in unregistered businesses. The unorganised sector comprises household-based manufacturing activities such as owner-manned general stores, handicrafts and handloom workers, rural traders, and farmers. The official definition of the unorganised sector explained by the Ministry of labour and employment is as follows; “Unorganised sector means an enterprise owned by individuals or self-employed workers and engaged in the production or sale of goods or providing service of any kind whatsoever, and where the enterprise employs workers, the number of such workers is less than 10.”
The Indian economy survives out of the existence of unorganised enterprises. They contribute 50 % of the Indian GDP. However, these businesses face daily challenges such as no guaranteed minimum wage, social security, child labour, and inadequate health and safety standards, leading to vulnerability to diseases, harassment at the workplace, etc.
Unemployment in India
As of June 2021, the unemployment rate in India was 12.81%, based on the data provided by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). It has increased by almost 14% from March 2021 to May 2021. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, many businesses had to close, which has increased the unemployment rate.
Various causes cause unemployment in India. The country has a large population, and there are not as many jobs available for the number of people in the country. Some rural populations do not even have access to education or vocational training, meaning they may have fewer chances of being employed by a company in the public or private sector. Also, the education provided in some schools and colleges does not fit the industries’ requirements. The social norm in the country is that women should not be working and must focus on the welfare of their families. They are discouraged from looking for work or continuing working after marriage.
Unemployment in India and anywhere in the world impacts the economy and the population’s welfare. It is the main reason for poverty, crime, and health problems such as malnutrition.
Indian Government’s solutions to Unemployment
The government tried creating more employment opportunities in India’s rural areas to decrease unemployment. The government created the Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM). This programme consists of helping unemployed youth 18-35 years old to gain skills to develop their own business. Other programmes have also been implemented to relieve the country from the burden of unemployment.
YUVA’s mission to create employment in India
YUVA was founded in 2015 by a group of enthusiastic young individuals. The organisation aims to create a brighter future for the children and youth of Mauritius and India. YUVA is one of Africa’s and India’s largest and most active youth-led organisations. It aims at promoting peace and non-violence, especially among the youth. It promotes peace in each individual and how they can reflect it to the world.
YUVA works with families to ensure that children and young people have access to good health, are well educated, experience the love of parents and their surroundings, and are cared for, protected, and participating.
YUVA focuses on creating better opportunities for the children and youth of India by getting them involved in the country’s development. Their voice is heard, and their concerns are being acted on. Children and young people gain new skills and experiences that will be useful for their development. Their objective is to develop healthy, educated, empowered, and employed individuals to break the cycle of poverty.
Here are some of the ways YUVA work to enable employment:
- Linking youth to vocational training and university programmes to guide them on a path that fits their interests, abilities, and the likelihood of finding work.
- Awarding scholarships to attend primary school, college, or other higher education institutions.
- Ensuring that work-readiness activities, soft-skills development, and job placement are part of their training programs.
- Providing career counsellors who teach interview techniques and conduct mock job interviews.
- Counselling on résumé creation, lining up letters of recommendation, and preparing other necessary documentation.
- Guiding teens to resources like online career guidance, assessment of talents and career interests, and job listings.
- Building relationships between YUVA staff and local employers and business organisations so they can help match teens to appropriate opportunities.
Ingrid Roussel, YUVA Intern