Raaghnie Autar: Evaluating Five Arguments of the Mauritius Youth Parliament Session 3

Good Governance by Marie Valérie Uppiah (Faculty member University of Mauritius)

Simply put: taking actions, making decisions and allocating resources for the good of society. Policy makers and decision makers come together to try to find solutions for the good of everyone.

Different types of governance:

1.Economic and financial development

2.Environmental governance

3.Corporate governance

4.Marine governance

I would like to add:

5.Political governance

6.Public governance

5 topics discussed at the Mauritius Youth Parliament ­ session: Good Governance


Georg von Fingerhut, international delegate from Germany, Russia and Japan, spoke about the influence of culture and morals on good governance in Japan. Ideologie: your responsibility to the world, your responsibility to your family and your responsibility to yourself. This “your responsibility” is what I refer to as good governance on micro level. Everyone has responsibilities, and if only everyone lived up to them the world might have been a better place. But what better place to start good governance than at micro level? As Gandhi said: “Be the change you wish to see in the world.”

I believe we all can be role models on good governance and lead the way to higher levels: corporate level, economic level or political level.


Sarah­Leigh Elago, international delegate from Namibia, spoke about many things and briefly mentioned the education in her country. I was very stunned by this topic, as she mentioned that education was not free in Namibia. She said there were protest for free education and that it recently got implemented, as I believe should be. In The Netherlands you have togo to school until the age of 18, or if you have accomplished certain level. Education is a fundamental human right and no child should be denied, even if they or their parents cannot afford it. It’s the country’s responsibility to invest in a well educated nation.


Osman Mohamed, Member of Parliament, started with a story:

“Once upon a time there was a conference in country A and a minister from country B attended the conference. When the minister from country B went to the house of the minister from country

A he was very impressed. He asked: “what is your salary and how come you have such a beautiful house?” Then the minister from country A opened up the window and asked: “you see the road over there?” The answer was “yes”. “See, when it was built a lot of money went into building that road and some of it came over here. That is how my house is so beautiful.”

And then 2 years down the road, things changed. This time the conference was in country B and the minister from country A came to visit the conference, but also went to the house of the minister from country B. The minister was so impressed, he said: “Wauw, your house is much more beautiful than mine. How much is your salary?” The minister from country B opened his window and said “Look outside.” But the minister from A could not see anything. “Yes precisely, everything came here. That is how, my house is more beautiful than yours.”

Right after the story the Member of Parliament assured us that this is not the case in Mauritius. Yet over and over again corruption is a topic which keeps on coming back and politics is being referred to as a dirty game. ICAC (International Comission Against Corruption) and YAC (Youth Agaist Corruption) are active in Mauritius. If corruption was not the case in Mauritius, why are such bodies needed in the first place? I believe such bodies are needed for several reasons on short term, such as doing research on corruption, be the place to be to report cases of corruption and spread awareness. On the long term they can definitely make a change: more awareness, less corruption and maybe even no corruption at all.

Political funding

There happens to be a fine line between political funding and bribery: it’s the 200,000 MRU mark. But it’s hard to point out when it’s actually bribery or when it’s political funding. I believe there is nothing wrong in supporting a political party. If they represent what you stand for, it’s only logic. But for many it’s also very logical to expect a favour in return for a big amount like 200,000 MRU. On one hand I do understand, it’s a big amount sothe giver may want worth his money. Even though I understand, I do not agree or support this. Because it is bribery and it’s wrong, very wrong.

Bad governance

A question came from the audience: “If we are in need of a Ministry of Good Governance, do you think we have bad governance?” Osman Mohamed said very frankly, “yes”. I really respect his honesty. Admitting there is a problem is the first step to solve it. The next step would be taking action. With the Good Governance & Integrity Bill the first step in taking action has been set. I believe Mauritius might be an example for other countries which are suffering from bad governance.


On the way to the Mauritian Youth Parliament we already spoke on the subject, the discussion continued at the session. The discussion was about if voluntarism should be free or if there should be at least some sort of incentive. I strongly support voluntarism, but in life there are some things I will not do for free. In my case that’s whatever is linked to my studies. I didn’t go to

school for over 20 years to fulfill my profession for free. I study Communications, so whenever the task is to do social media management, social media strategy or design websites I would like to get the recognition and some sort of incentive. For voluntary work not related to my profession I don’t mind doing it for free.


Safety was a topic not discussed during the Mauritian Youth Parliament session on good governance, but since it concerns The Netherlands and Europe at the very moment I would like to add this as an extra topic. Currently the safety situation in Europe is very instable. We have to face two major problems: ISIS and the refugees from Syria. I will continue on the topic of the refugees from Syria in The Netherlands. Whether the way things are being handled these days is yet to be proven good or bad governance.

From humanitarian point of view I believe that we should help people in need, but as a Dutch citizen I understand the fears that come with taking in the refugees. Many refugees enter Europe without passports or other legal documents, sometimes we literally don’t know who we are dealing with. Many children died on the way to a better and safer life, and I don’t think that any parent would take the risk of losing their child if the situation wasn’t bad enough.

We give them all the basics they need: shelter, food and clothes. On a longer term even education. But is it worth feeling unsafe? The feeling of unsafety comes from the fear of the unknown. There are just too many question marks. As I said before, it’s debatable if this is good or bad governance.

Raaghnie Autar: A critical review of ”Athal,K. 2015. Ramrajya: Chapter 7: Good Governance

Micro level good governance

Good governance gets more and more publicity on international and national level, but usually stays on such high levels. As a delegate from The Netherlands I came to Mauritius to learn more on the subject during the International Forum for Good Governance. When speaking about good governance on micro level I discussed the personal decision making process on the topics of voting and political leadership with other delegates at the forum. I’m pleased to share my thoughts on these topics, where I compare the course of events in The Netherlands with Mauritius.


In The Netherlands youngsters get educated in secondary school on politics years before they are allowed to vote. The educational programme includes the history of Dutch politics, the political movements and their views on various topics, the development over the years and the current course of events. This way the youngsters have the basic knowledge to make a responsible vote once they reach the age of 18. In Mauritius youngsters are not being tought about politics in the classroom, but are expected to use their vote wisely. How can we expect youngsters to make the right decision when they are not informed well?Where Dutch youngsters vote with at least some basic knowledge, which they can expand in several ways, I wonder based what do Mauritian nowadays’ youngsters vote? Caste, religion, culture or without giving it sufficient thought simply their parents choice? Athal (2015) mentioned that voting isn’t about caste, religion and/or culture, but about who is most fit for the job.

I firmly believe that the educational system should be theuncorrupted source to learn the basics of good governance on micro level to set the foundation for each and every youngster. I can’t say much about in which phase politics should be included in the educational program, because the educational system isn’t the same as in The Netherlands. My advice would be, just like in The Netherlands, that youngsters should be aware of the political arena before they reach the legal age to vote. By being well informed and by making an advised choice during elections citizens, youngsters as well as elderly, take their responsibility in their contribution for good governance on micro level.

“When the power of our votes turn into the power to turn an ordinary man into a leader of a country, we give with that a certain air of importance.” ­ Athal (2015, page 228)

Political Leadership

As mentioned before, youngsters in The Netherlands can expand their knowledge on politics in several ways. For example, they can easily access the political programme and history, join in debates and if they would like to contribute they can already join political parties. If they want to be a political leader they must join a political party, follow trainings for campaigning, debating and media and get involved as soon as possible on a very local level. In Mauritius the past decades the same political leaders have been in charge of the country. That must mean that, at least in those politcal parties, the past few decades no (former) youngster was trained, prepared and pushed forward as a (new) political leader. I honestly would like to get an answer on the WHY?Is it because current political leaders are not willing to step down? Are youngsters not willing to involve? Is there a procedure to become a political leader in Mauritius I may not know about? Let’s be real, those very same political leaders who have been in charge for the past few decades won’t live forever and if not now when will they invest in the future, the youth?

Being in Mauritius as a delegate I can see how time and effort are being invested in future leaders of Mauritius on a non­political level. I wish this youngster generation to open an eye for the situation in Mauritius and bring the change they want and deserve.

Pooja Bhatoo: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are major players in development aid today. Good governance is both a growing concept and concern in all institutions which is believed to be of major importance and should be applied at all levels of operation; be it strategic planning, accountability, administration and human resources. Knack and Keefer (2003) find that the quality of institutions is crucial to growth and development.

In order to better understand the importance and implementation of good governance in NGOs, it is a pre-requisite to acquaint oneself with the definitions of the two terms. Charnovitz (1997) posits that NGOs are groups of individuals organized for various reasons that engage human imagination and aspiration which are set up to advocate a particular cause or to carry out programs on the ground. Governance, on the other hand, is an inclusive term and involves formal institutions of decision-making. It can be regarded as constituting an aspect of good governance.  It may be referred to as an aspiration or ambition, which assumes that the process of governing meets certain standards, as explained in the World Bank’s policy research working paper on Governance Indicators (Kaufmann and Kraay, 2008). Kaufmann et al. (2000) defines governance as the traditions and institutions that determine how authority is exercised in a country.

According to the presentation on “Good Governance in NGOs” by Mr.Dana Chengan, this concept brings significant contribution to the promotion of trust in the organization, improvement in the quality of decision making, the ability of weathering a crisis and ensures financial and resources stability. It also helps in the enhancement of service delivery and communication within the organization.

Good governance can be implemented in the system of NGOs by being in line with the 8 principles of the latter; that is, participation, following the rule of law, accountability, transparency, responsiveness, consensus, stragtegic vision and, effectiveness and efficiency.

  • Participation

All members should have a voice in decision-making that represent their interests. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively.

  • Rule of Law

Legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially, particularly the laws on human rights.

  • Transparency and Accountability

Transparency is built on the free flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly accessible to those concerned with them, and enough information is provided to understand and monitor them. NGOs should promote this concept especially when dissipating information about their decisions, decision making process, in their strategic planning and recruitment processes.

  • Consensus Orientation

Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interests of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures.

  • Effectiveness and efficiency

Processes and the institution should produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources.

  • Strategic Vision

Leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded.

Simply put, the implementation of good governance in any institution, whether it is an international NGO or a national NGO one, can only be possible if these eight principles are adhered to. However, it is worth noting that there are both internal conflicts and external factors that may influence the correct procedures of implementing good governance in any institution.

Humaira Kayamdy: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

NGOs, Non-governmental organisations are made up out of free will without having profit as an aim. It represents the voice of those who cannot be heard, in other words, it represents people who cannot identify ways to speak up their opinions on certain situations and bring about a change.

Good governance is an ideal where a myriad of qualities are needed: transparency, accountability, honesty and much more. Good governance should be a process where the majority of the population is engaged. The NGOs put forward good governance through civil society actions focusing on empowerment and involvement.

How to have more involvement of citizens which ultimately lead to democracy? A concept that may help to achieve democracy is respecting everyone’s opinion by reaching a consensus –consensus is the best solution as it respects each individual’s opinion.

Transparency is the action of sharing information openly. It is the sharing of information to all people who are concerned in various ways and special ways of deliberating information should be made such that illiterate people or handicapped people may have the information. The information put forward should be relevant, accurate and complete. Transparency is also considered pertinent for controlling corruption in public life.It will show to the government how  lack of transparency can lead to inefficiencies .

The NGOs coming with new laws or projects should act in an equitable manner which will make the society trust it more. This can be achieved by setting up of laws and by-laws; allow the society to participate in these discussions and allow them to have their say/opinion. A good society is one which ensures that all its members do not feel excluded, and therefore want to participate. This requires that all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. Everyone should feel concerned irrespective of his or her position in the social strata.

Accountability has a great role to play in good governance. Accountability has many forms, including accurate reporting of financial data, the publication of annual reports. Who is accountable to whom? This question depends on whether decisions or actions are pronounced internally or externally within an organization. Generally, an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. Accountability requires both transparency and the rule of law. It is to be noted that answerability comes along with accountability, whereby the citizens are able to demand that the state justifies its actions.

Last but not least, public sector actors should be held accountable. Both the private sector and civil society have a role as “watchdogs” to promote government accountability and as they monitor such issues, the organizations must share information with important stakeholders or the general public and also, engage government counterparts in constructive conversations.

Pooja Bhatoo: Evaluating Five Arguments of the Mauritius Youth Parliament Session 3

George provided an insight about how good governance prevails in the governmental system in his country, Japan. A country and its people needs laws, regulations and acts to influence its citizens’ codes of conduct positively. However, George explained that good governance can be practiced out of good faith and education of the population. People need to acknowledge and abide by the established rules, not because of fear of the system, but by holding on to their beliefs. In this way, showing trust to their own self brings as much trust and confidence into their judicial, governmental systems and civil society. However, as much as this argument is morally sound, it is debatable as to how can one rely only on their good faith so as not to indulge into actions going against the rules of law; since good faith, education and rules & regulations can be argued to be interlinked.

The Honorable Mr. Osman Mohammed, parliamentary member of the Opposition party explained about the practice of good governance in Mauritius. Owing to a well established welfare state and a good judiciary system where laws, acts and regulations have been catered for; Mr. Mohammed showed strong confidence in the Mauritian governmental system by quoting the Mo Ibrahim Index and Freedom Index. He also explained that the Mauritian government adheres to its rules of law supported by a strong judicial system, has in place independent bodies to promote accountability and good governance principles. There is no doubt that the democratic government literature for a fair bit of time emphasized the need to develop and instill independent and robust institutions. Mauritius did very well at that level and created a host of institutions whose independence and autonomy were constitutionally guaranteed. However, it is inevitable to ask how efficient and effective these institutions in discharging their duties and responsibilities are. It is high time that we move away from governance as a number crunching and institutional creating exercise to one which is about real accountability to citizen. After all, state legitimacy and good governance do not depend only on regular elections but a functioning of institutions which articulate well with citizen engagement.

The intervention of Mr. R. Appayah was very stimulating in the sense that it touched the core issues that are actually crippling the Mauritian institutions. Mauritius is far from being the picture perfect example as evidenced by the successive high profile corruption related events as well as the growing patronage and cronyism causing many of the Mauritian brains to mitigate to greener pastures; clearly pointing that the country is currently undergoing bad governance where corruption cases are coming to surface and there is a lack of effective rules of law to remedy the situation. Moreover, the fact that there is a deliberate collusion between politicians, certain public servants and a section of the business world; it is crowding out the population who often has to pay a heavy price for the corruptive practices or in-competences of a small clique. It is of paramount importance to find an answer as to how to change the rhetoric around transparency and accountability into meaningful and tangible actions.

Sharfaa Muthy: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

NGOs are accountable to their communities (stakeholders); good governance is the basic form of accountability; good governance has a formal structure, good governance involves the separation of governance and management, NGOs are mission-based organisations; NGOs promote the highest professional and ethical standards; NGOs exercise responsible resource management and mobilization; and NGOs are responsible to the communities they serve. The guidelines then provide practical advice on implementing these principles.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are legally constituted corporations created by natural or legal people that operate independently from any form of government. The term originated from the United Nations, and normally refers to organizations that are not a part of a government and are not conventional for-profit businesses.

Good governance refers to government agencies’ conduct in implementing innovative policies and programmes to increase the quality of public service with the ultimate aim of increasing economic growth. This paper investigates good governance in Indonesia, with a focus on its implementation by regional / local government. There is no single and exhaustive definition of “good governance,” nor is there a delimitation of its scope, that commands universal acceptance. The term is used with great flexibility; this is an advantage, but also a source of some difficulty at the operational level66. Very often the term “good governance” is connected to the public affairs and way to manage public resources. Governance is a decision making process and their way of implementation. It’s not only about making “correct” decisions, but about the best possible process for making those decisions. In practice good governance is used in many sectors and areas of activities and to describe interactions between different groups of society.

Good governance and human rights are mutually reinforcing. Human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of governments and other political and social actors. They also provide a set of performance standards against which these actors can be held accountable. On the other hand, without good governance, human rights cannot be respected and protected in a sustainable manner. The implementation of human rights relies on a conducive and enabling environment. This includes appropriate legal frameworks and institutions as well as political, managerial and administrative processes responsible for responding to the rights and needs of the population.

A non-governmental organisation should help in implementing a good governance strategy as it brings many benefit to the society. People are more likely to have confidence in their local government if decisions are made in a transparent and accountable way. This helps people feel that local government will act in the community’s overall interest, regardless of differing opinions.
It also encourages local governments to remember that they are acting on behalf of their community and helps them to understand the importance of having open and ethical processes which adhere to the law and stand up to scrutiny. Elected members and council officers will feel better about their involvement in local government when good governance is practised.

Councillors will be more confident that they are across the issues, that they can trust the advice they are given, that their views will be respected even if everyone doesn’t agree with them, and that the council chamber is a safe place for debate and decision making.

Good governance creates an environment where elected members and council officers ask themselves ‘what is the right thing to do?’ when making decisions. The most significant contribution of councillors to the planning process is when they establish the strategic framework in which decisions get made. Their participation in the development and review of municipal strategic statements, local planning policy frameworks and local other policies allows them to shape the vision for the municipality and how it will look in the future.

While speaking of good governance we also refer to the matter of electing non corrupted people and avoid a corrupted society. While giving much importance to good governance. The NGO should be able to handle the different roles allocated.

Seechurn Sandya: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

Non – Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are organizations that are neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business. NGOs are set up by ordinary citizens and may be funded by governments, foundations, businesses, or private persons.  Good governance is very important in an NGO because the latter is accountable to the community.   Since they benefit directly or indirectly from public support, NGOs are expected to demonstrate a high degree of accountability to their surrounding community.  This community includes members, beneficiaries, donors, the government, and other stakeholders or constituencies. As such to good governance here becomes the steer that can guide NGOs towards social accountability.

The eight principles of good governance are : accountability, transparency, responsive,  equitable and inclusive, effective , efficient and participatory.  These eight principles are the base of good governance whereby any NGO who follow them shall not only perform better and at the same time be a better-managed organization but also get the trust of the different stakeholders.

According to the World Bank, Good governance has to have three aspects:

First, the form of political regime;

Second the process by which authority is exercised in the management of a country’s social and economic resources for development.

Third, the capacity of the government to design, formulate and implement policies and discharge functions.

Generally, all NGOs have a “basic document” as required by law, that is, the act of incorporation, statute, etc.  This document explicitly designs the name of the governing bodies, their roles and responsibilities within the organization.  It also states how an NGO function, i.e., the board and the distribution of decision making powers.  This is the governance structure of NGOs in Mauritius generally.  Now in order to bring in good governance, the whole structure has a crucial role to play.  Since the board members are the pillars of an NGO structure, they are the ones who are going to implement that aspect of good governance.

Firstly, we have a board which is the principle governing body and also takes decisions.  For a better governance the board members should proceed towards having collective decision making that will represent the interest of all stakeholders while still being focused on their mission.  In other words involve all the responsible parties in order to understand the needs of the organization.  These collective decision making processes have a practical benefit also.  The involvement of all members brings more breadth of perspective and depth thereby surpassing the abilities of a single leader.  This also brings up much transparency in the work and role of the board.

Secondly, when a board governs, it generally has staffs that manage.  The division of duties between board and staff often leaves a gap between them and affects the effectiveness of the whole process from decision making to implementing.  But for a better governance to be in action it is crucial that the board must involve and participate in the implementation task thus eliminating the gap that hinders the board from fully understanding the needs and requirements of the organization and thus become more responsive.  This also encourages all the parties involved to be more confident and the end result be better decision making.

Taking in account the impact that good governance, it is easy to understand that the latter is beneficial for all, be it the stakeholders, the society or the government.  Good governance can improve the transparency of NGOs, involve participation, be more responsive, responsible and be effective and efficient and have more social accountability.  This will generate trust of one and all.

Georg von Fingerhut: A critical review of ”Athal,K. 2015. Ramrajya: Chapter 7: Good Governance

Krishna Athal in the book “Ramrajya” states extremely important point: “often countries have a way somehow of twisting the principles into shapes that suit their own personal agendas instead of those of the nation”[1]. We all aware of extreme amount of money paid every year by developing countries. Not so many people aware about why does it happened. Cold war and the corrupt regimes that emerged during this time was a prefect opportunity to put the country on the hook by throwing it into debt. Corrupt regimes easily spend the money and run away, whereas many countries with its sovereignty were left in the struggling situation. First of all, the government that spend the money already far away, but the lawns need to be paid back. Secondly, citizens are here and they demand for better conditions, where any fluctuation of their will can flow away any new regime. That puts another, already new government in the same situation, where lawn is already just a problem of survivor. Since cold war, such situation happened in more than 50 countries, where almost 300 million people live only on less than one dollar a day. According to the World Bank, up to 2015 there are still 39 countries happened to be in the same situation. Since the situation has not been solved, there were many talks about external debt cancelation. World Bank and IMF described those countries as Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and divided the countries above in three types:

  • Those that already completed status of HIPC such as: Angola, Afghanistan, Benin, Plurinational State of Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Níger, Rwanda, São Tomé Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia.
  • Those that in the decision point: Chad, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea.
  • Those that in Pre-Decision Point: Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan.[2]

However referring to only the time of cold ward would be not correct. The author of the words mentioned above, Krishna Athal is a struggling representative of Youth United Voluntary Activity group in Mauritius. From the one hand, Mauritius is one of the most developed courtiers in Africa with relatively strong economy. From the second hand, we have an extremely difficult situation, when according to the data of Central Statistics Office of Mauritius, external debt of Mauritius doubled since 2010, from 200 MUR Million to almost 550 MUR Million.[3]

What should we do with this situation?


Since 1980s Paris Club, World Bank, IMF and other official bilateral creditors mostly from developed countries tried to solve this situation. At the beginning in 1980s for the debt relief were proposed different concessional mechanisms. By 1995 Paris Club offered a mechanism of rescheduling of debt for low-income countries “Naples terms” when two-thirds of the eligible debt were rescheduled. However, the poverty-debt cycle still remained.

Another initiative was started already in 1996, named the original Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs), list of which was mentioned before. To be considered for such initiative, “countries must face an unsustainable debt burden which cannot be managed with traditional means”[4]. The initiative provides a debt relief on low-interest loans to cancel or reduce external debt repayments to sustainable levels, following extensive lobbying by NGOs and other bodies. That means, that countries can repay the debts in a timely fashion in the future but need to agree for some conditions instead.


We can see that there is no such thing as a free lunch. In HIPCs initiative, by 1999 only four countries had received any debt relief. As an example of such program in East Africa, in May 2012 the IMF agreed to lend ten million dollars to help Republic of Djibouti “meet its debt and import payments”. In the response, the Djibouti government has “agreed to reform diesel fuel subsidies, freeze any hiring in the public sector, except for health and education and freeze public sector pay, except for the lowest salary band”. Above all mentioned Djibouti needed at the same time keep constant four percent of inflation.[5] Such maintenance of structural reforms or privatization for other countries in exchange of debt cancellation is common case. However conducting of such coordinal reforms and simultaneous debt payment is a very difficult task even for strong economies. In the end, Republic of Djibouti has not yet considered to be eligible for the HIPC initiative.

The cancellation of external debt without anything back is a difficult question even for United Nations. In July 2012 a United Nations report was introduced an indexed loan repayments program, where the interest rate connected to a country’s economic export growth. According to it, borrower country would repay more of their debts in the good times, and less during the hard times, what potentially don’t solve the problem but only postponed it.

At the same time debt relief raises concerns about excessive borrowing in the future, what is another problem for developing countries. It creates a huge doubt for IMF and World Bank to lend money for the future development.[6]


Other policy that could be conducted by the country to reduce the debt is increase of inflation. Reduction in the nominal value of currency will reduce the value of debts and could increase the chance of debt relief.

On the other hand, another opportunity for debt cancellation could be found in help of other countries. Brazilian government in May 2013, announced to cancel or restructure almost 900 million dollars debt for African countries. Such policy will help expand Brazil’s economic connections with Africa in infrastructure, agriculture and social programs and at the same time rapid up the growth of trade and investment between regions.  In the program included 12 countries, in beneath which Tanzania, that owes Brazil 237 million dollars, along with oil-producing Republic of Congo and copper-rich Zambia.[7] 

At the same time, after long negotiation with IMF, World Bank, African Development Bank and several Western lenders since 1999 followed by a catastrophic recession that ran for a decade until 2008, neighborhood country Zimbabwe finally reach its goal. According to CNBC Africa, Zimbabwe’s Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa proclaim that “Zimbabwe will have its external debt arrears cleared by April 2016”. If the country will achieve its goal in 2016 it will be an important prove that it is possible to clear external debt with its partial cancellation and other initiatives provided by external institutions.


Another question is what would debt cancellation bring to the country. Does all these initiatives after cancelling external debt or governmental policy of inflation will really help the country and improve poverty and other issues? Simply speaking, will it all reach the poor people? On the other hand, what is the reason for relieved countries, don’t contract further debts, under the understanding that the future debts will also be forgiven? Possible corrupt regime of the country could use the investments and external initiatives in their private means. And here we come to the case of Mauritius. As the most important example we can see previously one of the most developed country in the world that under NGO’s policies and corrupted government led the country into the debt. Such policy not only makes the country more depended on global North, but brings unstable situation in the country that is at the moment not so globally reflected. The bubble of IT technology when country was full of money is disappeared and what would be the other future for the country, as not be depended on global NGO’s and their initiatives to struggle in the future poverty. From this perspectives external debt cancellation is not a possible solution.

Driving a conclusion, we see, that external debt and the burden of paying back the debt is an important problem in poor countries where funds have to be syphoned off basic social services to pay for external debt servicing. Depending on the country, policies provided by external institutions are helpful for one country and destructive for another. Some countries are more or less struggled to solve the problem of external debt, but in spite of all the affords of international community, the majority of HIPC countries are still in debt. At the same time not only HIPC countries are struggling from the debt, but previously developed countries as Mauritius are also in the very difficult situation, where simple external debt cancelation will not solve the problem that they face.

[1] Krishna Athal, “Ramrajya” p214

[2] Official Web Site of World Bank, External Debt – accessed December 5, 2015

[3] Central Statistics Office of Mauritius Web Site – accessed December 5, 2015

[4] Factsheet: Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative – The IMF – accessed December 5, 2015

[5] Jubilee Debt Campaign Website – accessed December 5, 2015

[6] The World Bank “Global Development Finance” 2006, Washington DC, p.95

[7] News Paper Report, May 2013

Davina Chowreemootoo: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

NGO’s are non governmental organizations that represent the most forceful voices for ordinary people. They are the most strident advocates of diversity and participatory citizenry and come with strong proposals of change. The biggest advantages of NGO’s are; they are transparently managed and oriented to represent public interest They also promote community improvement and campaign for human rights, social justice and other billowing issues arising in the globalized world. For an NGO to function efficiently, it is important to have a substantial level of willingness from its volunteers who work assiduously without any material interest. NGOs should also adopt a proactive approach to their work and have a visionary and practical agenda.

Good governance in NGO’s is as important as it is in private and public sectors. Good governance in NGOs is the way strategies and measures are taken through the principles of integrity, transparency and accountability. The named board have a prime responsibility of proper functioning of every division of the organization. It is a matter of paramount importance that NGOs are in the parameters and guidelines of good governance and apply a high level of transparency and accountability to every task they deal with. If NGOs aim at promoting performance and accountability in the humanitarian system, they will primarily need to demonstrate these same principles in the management of their own coordination and self-regulation mechanisms. This greatly improves quality and accountability.
NGOs are not exempt to corruption. Corruption, includes nepotism, bribery and fraud and can lead to conflict thus undermining the work of NGOs and also leading to an amiss reputation. Corruption acts as one of the major barrier in the achievement of good governance in NGOs and it should thus be ensured that the principles adopted by the organizations are fully ethical and do not converge in any way to the orb of corruption.

NGO leaders should be able to apply the principles of good governance in regulating any process of their respective organizations. Their proposed agenda should be gripping enough so as to initiate a high level of volunteerism including many youngster who will work at a collective level and initiate their voice to become a permanent component in decision making.

There should be regular reports of any funds through accounting, budgeting and audit processes. Audit processes are carried out by social accounting and verification. This intense internal control of funds helps to manage the economic assets of an NGO and helps to build up a good financial system which is crucial for any organization. Auditing provides a major framework for good governance. Reports to stakeholders is a chief asset for effective and legitimate NGO assessment. Furthermore, participation facilitates the claim of product, which is essential to bring about a positive change. In a deeper meaning, ensuring a balanced participatory system in civil society creates trust and engagement of the stakeholders in the organization.

NGOs should in no way be related to any political parties, or else this inquest the basis of their inception. They should adopt an ethic of neutrality so as to promote standards and principles of the country. NGOs should note that indulging in any malpractices or nefarious works is highly detrimental to their reputation and undermines the trust and support of their stakeholders and as well as the public. They must regularly analyze any potential risk of corruption and alleviate these risk as well as implement productive mechanisms for strengthening their overall internal systems. NGOs also need to present legitimate accounts for their decisions and activities they are undertaking, this ignites a high level of transparency and compliance.

To promote an accountable and transparent humanitarian response, NGOs should be able to identify accountability gaps present at any level and assist to tackle the problem. Also, feedback and complaints mechanisms should be imperatively included as part of the coordination system. These will ensure that NGOs work efficiently under the a top-notch leadership of a dedicated cadre.

Sarah-Leigh Elago: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

I fathom that NGOs are imperative to be of assistance to any government. However, we shouldn’t neglect the realities that come with and from NGOs. Most NGOs comes with terms and conditions, “the hand that feeds you, controls you” aspect is very much the equivalent in this era and century. So, just how effective are NGOs? Will they have the aptitude to be implemental tools for good governance without being bias? Is it possible for NGOs to implement good governance fairly, transparently and accordingly without pushing a hidden agenda? The answers to the above-mentioned are a paradox. It is an enigma of its own that needs proper dissection and or perusal, whilst taking cognizance of all the positive change NGOs are able to convey in ALL levels. Also, “Perception of Interpretation” shall be observed in my findings. The following are my thesis;

NGO – Non Governmental Organization

  • According to Wikipedia, non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level. In other words, the organization should NOT be dedicated at making a profit.

Objectives of an NGO

  • NGO – brings the balance, of rich and poor, ethical development, inclusion, counter social unfairness, voices of the vulnerable, watchdog of development.

Structures Representing for Social Development

  • Government – Policy Making à Responsibility à Accountability
  • NGO – Civil Societies àEthical Development àMake a positive change
  • Private Sector – Business Development à Investments à Profit àReinforce Economy

According to Mr.Dana Chengan’s presentation on Good Governance in NGOs, the below is the “Impact of Good Governance in Youth Organisation and or NGOs (of which I agree) ;

  • Promotes TRUST in the organisation and its
  • Improves morale among staff and stakeholders.
  • Enhances services to the public and stakeholders.
  • Improves decision making and quality of these decisions
  • Connects your organisation è Board/Members/Stakeholders
  • Enhances the perception of the organisation among people and stakeholders.
  • Improves the ability to weather a crisis.
  • Improves financial and resources stability. ”  


The following mechanisms can be employed to ensure good governance;

The mechanisms that have emerged in recent times to ensure the good governance of NGOs working in Namibia can be attributed in part to the interactions and exchanges between international and national NGOs. While many national NGOs, whether at a national level, have arrangements such as a board of directors, there is still a significant gap between their adoption and their effectiveness. Here, it is useful to consider three mechanisms or arrangements identified by interviewees that are important aspects of accountability and transparency: a board of directors, strategic planning, and direct involvement by key stakeholders. By focusing on the importance of each mechanism, it is possible to understand the relations between national and international NGOs and the level of exchange between the two in creating more accountable systems.

Having a board of directors for an NGO is a general indication of its infrastructure for accountability, as the organization is accountable to a group of individuals appointed from beyond the organization. One of the greatest weaknesses of national NGOs is their governing system. Most National NGOs do not have a board of directors because of the difficulty in establishing one, and also in finding willing and experienced local people to sit on the board. For National NGOs that have established a board of directors, it is not uncommon for the head of the organization to preside over the board. The selection of the board members must come under scrutiny to determine the board’s impartiality and objectivity. It is appropriate to query the objectivity of a board in seeking to guarantee that the organization is free from any wrong-doing or unprofessional practices.

In conclusion, all that is left for NGOs is to operate on trust which is both respectable and perilous.

Yashraj Bhudoye: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

What does a NGO do? It represents the voice of those who cannot be heard, those who feel concerned about their situation in the society as well as in the country in general, those who wish to ‘warn’ the government about a situation amongst others. How do a NGO promote a nation to place their trust on it?

Good governance is a whole concept where we hear the terms transparency, accountability, honesty, politics, democracy… “Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development”, Kofi Annan. Good governance’s objective should move away from the mainstream theories and include the people-the population needs to be incorporated in this process. The NGOs implement good governance through civil society actions focusing on empowerment. Good governance today plays a paramount role in the NGOs where money is involved, decision making processes, clear reporting lines, budget management and others. How is this implemented?

Some principles for good governance to be applied in a NGO are, inter-alia:

  1. Participation

The type of empowerment and participation described in this partner agreement is different from just electoral participation. Participation is here used in order to obtain influence in the policies that affect them. By participating in the validation of development plans and budgeting, civil society may have a say or at least be able to express their views on the matters. One is that civil society may participate but after all it is the politicians who make the final decision. Even though civil society may have been consulted it does not necessarily imply that the final say appears to their advantage. Additionally, preparing a policy proposal every year does not equal the implementation or consideration of it. Another issue is the problem of reaching the very poor in society. People who have a hard time making a living are difficult to get to participate because political participation then is an extra aspect to deal with which does not make the highest priority. Participation of the civil society makes room for an informed and reflective section. Participation mechanisms can provide the opportunity for transparent feedback so local governments can hear from a broad diversity of people regularly. A related concept is consensus orientation –the process of establishing mutual understanding among diverse stakeholders about what is in the best interest of the whole community or society and the general direction for achieving that vision. Sustained good governance requires mediating different interests and establishing broad consensus in order for government and citizens to be able to take actions and the society to function without frequent conflict.

  1. Transparency

Transparency means that decisions, and their enforcement, follow established rules and regulations.

It also means that all people who will be affected by such decisions have access to easily understandable information– in local languages and accessible to illiterate and blind/deaf community members. Transparency means sharing information and acting in an open manner. It promotes access to information. Information, however, must be timely, relevant, accurate and complete for it to be used effectively such as through community radio. Transparency is also considered essential for controlling corruption in public life. Through public financial accountability and transparency, CSO and government can learn to more efficiently allocate resources. A lack of transparency can lead to inefficiencies and hinder development.

Transparency = The act of sharing information openly, that is, a characteristic of accountability.

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers– Article 19, UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.

Governance, from the vantage point of both government and the governed, has always depended on control of information and access to it. Fostering sound public judgment through informed dialogue is central to good governance. To achieve this, governments and citizens depend on information, data analysis and distribution. Information truly is power when resources and access are at stake. And peoples’ ability to control and shape information and channels of distribution are important aspects of that power.

  1. Equity and inclusiveness

The NGO proposing any new laws or projects, should do so in an equitable manner which will eventually instill trust in the society. This can be done through proper setting up of laws and by-laws; involving the society to partake in these discussions and to allow them to have a say. A society’s wellbeing depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it, do not feel excluded from the mainstream, and therefore want to participate. This requires that all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. Everyone should feel concerned irrespective of his or her position in the social strata.

  1. Accountability

Accountability is a key requirement of good governance and constitutes the other side of participation. Accountability can take many forms, including accurate reporting of financial data, the publication of annual reports, and the responsible use of resources. One of the basic indicators of accountability within a group is its system of internal review and sharing findings as the NGO requires of beneficiaries. Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general, an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. Government institutions, the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders about what they have done, will do or failed to do. Accountability requires both transparency and the rule of law. Accountability involves reciprocal and full exchange of information. For example, in the case of CSOs, an organization has a responsibility to share information with the Principles: Good governance is accountable, participatory, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in consensus oriented decision-making.

Another aspect of civic participation is holding public sector actors accountable. Both the private sector and civil society have a role as “watchdogs” to promote government accountability. Watchdogs are organizations or networks that monitor specific issues, share information with key stakeholders or the general public and engage government counterparts in constructive dialogue.

Véronique Labonté: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

I learned during this session that the structure to bring social economic and democratic development is divided in three parts Government, Private sector and NGO’s & civil society.

The responsibility of the Government:

  • Policy makers
  • Responsibility to apply
  • Accountability to citizens

NGO’s grouping of willingness to bring positive change for doing something with heart, for e.g. when you work in the field of poverty; you are part of the people. You need to create a good impact at the first point of contact with the client to build trust and a good relationship.

Democracy and good governance are the voice of everybody who helps to take and apply decision.

I learned that perception and interpretation are two things different and we need to know how to adopt a strategic way to come up with a solution.

NGO’s responsibility is to bring proposition to the government for the implementation of projects in any field for e.g. education and poverty.

The characteristics and principles:

  • Compliance and direction
  • Performance
  • Accountability and transparency for the beneficiary, agency and all stakeholders
  • Equity and fairness
  • Voice

The outcome should be:

  • Trust
  • Lead us towards efficiency and effectiveness
  • Doorway to success

We need to know how to manage people and to work properly for the administrative purpose and be accountable for everything we do.

Steps to use by running an NGO’s:

  • Analyse your stakeholders
  • Reflection
  • Funding agency
  • Sustainability can succeed
  • Innovative ideas
  • New ways of doing something
  • Expectation
  • Good Communication
  • Advocacy
  • Strong proposal of change
  • Acceptation

You should be the role model and NGO’s should exclude political parties and cooperatives.

For the encouragement need to use this kind of phrase I Believe you care about me or I believe you are competent and capable.

Good Governance in Politics:

  • Responsibility
  • Politics
  • Change maker
  • Advantages
  • Control influence
  • Human rights
  • Leverage
  • Processes
  • Violence
  • Transparency
  • Accountability
  • Poverty

For me the Youth can make a positive change and impact in Mauritius through social media and at grass root level, for instance this International Forum on Good Governance organised by YUVA Mauritius is an example.


  • Defined?
  • Political motivations
  • Crippling the process
  • Genuine action-based line
  • Policy
  • Implementation


  • Large movement/Transformation
  • Democratic acceleration
  • Decrease in human displacement
  • Greater confidence
  • Control and influence

Human rights:

Better governance=Better politics=Decent Human rights

Improved governance requires an integrated, long-term strategy built upon cooperation between government and citizens. It involves both participation and institutions.

The Rule of Law, Accountability, and Transparency are technical and legal issues at some levels, but also interactive to produce government that is legitimate, effective, and widely supported by citizens, as well as a civil society that is strong, open, and capable of playing a positive role in politics and government. This paper considers goals for better governance, key challenges confronting efforts at reform, examples of successful good-governance efforts, and action steps for improving both participation and institutions.

Goals identified are:

  • Legitimate, effective, responsive institutions and policies (“embedded autonomy”)
  • Understandable processes and outcomes:
  • Transparency:
  • Incentives to sustain good governance:
  • Vertical accountability:
  • Horizontal accountability and leaders, and among segments of government:

Key challenges that must be addressed include:

  • Avoiding excessive legislation and regulation
  • Giving politics its place in good governance
  • Building broad-based support for reform
  • Paying close attention to incentives for leaders and citizens

Assessing public opinion:

  • Strengthening checks and balances, both administrative and political
  • Recognizing opposition to reform
  • Thinking regionally
  • Staying focused on the long term

Action steps are proposed for both the participation and institution dimensions of governance:


  • Rule of law

: A frank, broad-based assessment of representation, civil society, social

Support and compliance with policy

  • Accountability

: Public opinion, consultation, evaluations of government

  • Transparency

: Public education


  • Rule of Law

: Clear institutional standards and enforcement

  • Accountability

: Responsibility, checks and balances

  • Transparency:

Open and understandable rules, procedures, information are important.

The emphasis is not on novel ideas so much as sustained, coordinated effort that brings leaders and citizens together in support of common goals.


Bisham Sibsurun: How should a national NGO implement good governance at all levels of operation?

There are a number of ideas and principles for making good decisions that affect many people i.e. decisions made by civil society organizations or governmental authorities, at a local, national or international level. These ideas form the principles of Good Governance and are used by international and local NGOs (Non-Governmental Organization) as well as donors and governments themselves. They are also embedded in the Good Governance Framework.


Accountability is a key requirement of good governance and constitutes the other side of participation. Accountability can take many forms, including accurate reporting of financial data, the publication of annual reports, and the responsible use of resources. One of the basic indicators of accountability within a group is its system of internal review and sharing findings as the NGO requires of beneficiaries. Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general, an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. Government institutions, the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders about what they have done, will do or failed to do.


Good development programming promotes equitable participation, the chance for all members of society to have an informed and consequential voice in decisions that affect them. Participation by men and women, girls and boys is a cornerstone of good governance. Participation can be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. Even representative forms of government do not necessarily ensure that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society are taken into consideration in decision-making. Participation mechanisms can provide the opportunity for transparent feedback so local governments can hear from a broad diversity of people regularly. Participation needs to be informed and organized – freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other. Every community and society incorporates people and groups with distinctly differing points of view and goals. Sustained good governance requires mediating different interests and establishing broad consensus in order for government and citizens to be able to take actions and the society to function without frequent conflict.

Equity and inclusiveness

A society’s well being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it, do not feel excluded from the mainstream, and therefore want to participate. This requires that all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being.


Transparency means that decisions, and their enforcement, follow established rules and regulations. It also means that all people who will be affected by such decisions have access to easily understandable information in local languages and accessible to illiterate and blind/deaf community members. Transparency means sharing information and acting in an open manner. It promotes access to information. Information, however, must be timely, relevant, accurate and complete for it to be used effectively such as through community radio. Transparency is also considered essential for controlling corruption in public life. Through public financial accountability and transparency, the government can learn to more efficiently allocate resources. A lack of transparency can lead to inefficiencies and hinder development.

Effectiveness and efficiency

Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at the society’s disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.


Good governance requires that institutions and processes seek to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe and have mechanisms for soliciting ideas and giving updates to constituents. This is a key issue in many societies in transition where governments often pursue competing goals, and a lack of responsiveness can quickly erode trust in government despite its good works.


The projection of the concept of good governance onto the national system is an orientation of a state as it then progressively boosts people’s trust in their government thereby leading to an improvement in the government services. The government along with the NGO should come up with fair and legitimate projects which the society will accept. Thus in the long run, good governance evolves into stronger aspirations for further democratization.

Samuel Nasralla: Evaluating Five Arguments of the Mauritius Youth Parliament Session 3

On Wednesday Dec 2nd we went to Port Louis to attend a youth parliament. The session was greatly interactive by many youth who have passion to change their country and Africa. It was also honored by some diplomats from Mauritius. I have learned a lot from those talks and arguments, one of the most interesting arguments I liked the one talking how we can govern people in a country either by making laws or education or morality. The question was raised here whether which technique we should use to have a good governance and allow the right conduct of the citizens. My personal opinion is that we should have a mix of the three things mentioned above, they are all dependent on each other. You can’t live in a country where there are good morals but not law because you can’t depend on morals so much because at a certain point morals are relative from one to another. Some people their morals and ethics would be derived from their religious background and others can have their values derived from their culture or heritage. Whether we like it or not, morals and ethics would always be relative from one to another and we can’t have this as a general platform to have good governance. But on the other hand, we can’t deny the effect of morals on the citizens, it’s the inside power that drives people actions, if you have good morals in a society, less crime, less corruption and less problems. As mentioned in the parliament by George that Japan his country is a great example of people living with their morals and ethics based on the way they got raised and lived in home. Therefore I would suggest that reaching to good governance would first start from the families that raise their children with ethics and morals to make them reliable citizens that do good for the country and for others around them. But get back to the point that morals won’t be enough; morals should be governed by set of laws that is above morals. Laws come in at a point where morals could be different because they are relevant as mentioned before. I see law is a cutting sword that sharpens the morals and state what should be legalized and what shouldn’t. Looking around the countries, we can’t find well developed countries without having a set of laws that governs people actions. Laws are essential to make a general platform that people can all be equal and treated fairly under its umbrella. But let’s get back to my start point that stated that morals, education and laws are dependent on each other, because in the case of having laws we need people to enforce those kind of laws that is why now morals and ethics kick in and help out laws. Because if we don’t have ethical people who enforce those laws, then there is no need for laws because people who enforce law can easily take bribes and forgets about the law. Our third corner is education, and I see this as a very important pillar to reach the good governance as with Education you direct people ethics and moral to a more civilized and developed ethics.  It also gives more credibility to the laws set out because they are set by well educated people who have well developed mentalities that by education made them more responsible for the government. Education sets in us integrity, responsibility and smartness that we need to develop a good governance.

Sarah-Leigh Elago: Evaluating Five Arguments of the Mauritius Youth Parliament Session 3

The Revolution

  • Samuel spoke about the first and second revolution in his home country of Egypt. The first revolution was mostly religion based as it was headed by the Islamic brotherhood, and the second one was military motivated. Now, I could not help but to notice how the first revolution had more bloodshed. Because, according to Samuel “over 700 people were dying in a day at the hands of the Islamic Brotherhood.” This boils back to the essence of religion. I kept asking myself why more people died during a religion based “Revolution” then the military motivated “Revolution”. These are my thesis;
  • I would start off by defining “El Revolucion”, and how it can affect the economy of the country. According to Wikipedia, A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, “a turnaround”) is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time. Aristotle described two types of political revolution: Complete change from one constitution to another. 2. Modification of an existing constitution. In other words, someone rises to the occasion of creating a shift in power and constitution. Currently, the status quo is very much the same after two very different revolutions. Not much change has taken place, as Egypt is still in conflict. Samuel was honest enough to say that “Nobody really cares about the aftermath of these revolutions.” Also, proving that inasmuch as a citizen knows their power, few plan for what happen after the revolution ends.
  • Secondly, the need of violence in revolutions is a reality that has left many people died, a nation in distress and the economy down. Violence should not be condoned as the case in Afrika. Hundreds and thousands of people lost their lives but bodies like the AU are quiet on the matter. Is it because northern Afrika regards itself more Middle Eastern then Afrikan? The biggest reason raised was that northern Afrika relates with Middle Eastern due to the religion shared. Again, the religion factor has proven over and over how dividing and dangerous it can be.
  • According to Doaa S. Abdou*, Zeinab Zaazou’s “THE EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION AND POST SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT 2013, The Egyptian revolution carries a challenging transition phase, starting out with problems such as low foreign direct investments (FDI), a high budget deficit, a high debt rate, a high unemployment rate, a high poverty rate, and a low standard of living. In addition, the budget deficit is expected to rise from 8.1% in 2009/10 close to 10% in 2010/11, as the interim government boosts spending to offset the impact of the political unrest. The temporary supply shortages that followed the upheaval, coupled with rising international prices of food and fuel have been adding to the pressure on the domestic price level since early 2011. Thus the inflation rate is expected to increase from 11.7% in 2009/10 to 13.4% in 2010/11. This paper tries to answer the following questions: How long will the transition period last? What are the drastic impacts on the political/economic conditions (after revolution), and also the social/sociological environment in Egypt? And what about these impacts within the governance framework? What effect does all that have on neighborhood countries? At last, what are the solutions and remedies that can be suggested to overcome this period and start a new flourishing era? We are aiming to tackle these important topics and examine them through theoretical and descriptive study, hoping to come up with adequate answers and solutions.” These aftermaths are clearly evident 2 years after both revolutions.
  • Lastly, has the world legitimized violence via political enthused acts? I argue that in most parts of the world, YES! The world has witness numerous violent attacks that were religious based and of course politically enthused. Nigeria, France, Egypt, Burundi, Libya and South Afrika have seen the violence that is accompanied with “El Revolucion” yet nobody denounced it. When is it okay to okay violence and when is it not?

After my evaluation, I realize there is still so much to be done in conflict resolution for Afrika and the world at large. Also, successions plans ought to be a must to ensure a smooth transaction of power.